Unit 2: Settlement and Urbanisation.


Night Lights Quiz: can you identify these cities from space.

Click on the image and take the quiz from the Guardian website.

Guardian Name the City Quiz.jpg

Do the cities have anything in common when seen from this perspective?


1)Settlements and service provision

  • Explain the patterns of settlement

Dispersed, linear, and nucleated settlement patterns

  • Describe and explain the factors which may influence the sites, growth and functions of settlements

Influence of physical factors (including relief, soil, water supply) and other factors (including accessibility, resources)

  • Give reasons for the hierarchy of settlements and services

High-, middle- and low-order settlements and services.

Sphere of influence and threshold population

Case study required: Settlement and service provision in an area (Switzerland or country you are most familiar with)

2) Urban settlements

  • Describe and give reasons for the characteristics of, and changes in, land use in urban areas

Land use zones including the Central Business District (CBD), residential areas, industrial areas and the rural-urban fringe of urban areas in countries at different levels of economic development

The effect of change in land use and rapid urban growth in an urban area including the effects of urban sprawl

  • Explain the problems of urban areas, their causes and possible solutions

Different types of pollution (air, noise, water, visual), inequality, housing issues, traffic congestion and conflicts over land use change

Case study required in 1.6: An urban area or areas (Basel or city you are most familiar with)

Part 1:Settlement Characteristics

1) Patterns


Look through the PowerPoint below and then complete the task on the last slide.

2) Site and Situation

A) Read this summary of site and situation from S-cool and use it to help describe the site and situation of Basel.

B) Homework Task: Read pages 44-52 in your text book and answer questions 4,5,6,7 and 8.

3) Function

Port of Switzerland, Basel.png

Basel has Switzerland’s only cargo port, through which goods pass along the navigable stretches of the Rhine and connect to ocean-going ships at the port of Rotterdam.

B) Use this map to find examples of Basel’s other functions. Try and find one for each of the following, you may find others. When you find a function, add it to the, “Function,” layer of the map. Add a photograph and a short description.

  • Shopping (Retail)

  • Business (Commercial)

  • Farming (Agricultural)

  • Housing (Residential)

  • Educational

  • Healthcare

  • Administration (local or national government)

  • Fishing

  • Tourism

  • Entertainment

  • Sporting

Shopping: Different Types of Shops and Services

Coop pronto.jpg

1) Click on the heading above and answer the following questions.

A) Add definitions of the following terms to the word document below. Give examples wherever possible.

Convenience Shops

Low Order Goods

Comparison Goods

High Order Goods.

Sphere of Influence

Settlement Dictionay Definition.doc

B) Using your knowledge of Basel, locate three high order (Comparison Goods) shops and three low order (Convenience Goods) shops in the Basel area. Add them to the digital map

2) Why do people travel travel further to some shops than others?


a) What do IKEA sell?

b) Are these goods high or low order goods? Explain your answer.

c) How often do you think people visit IKEA?

d) Describe the distribution of IKEA stores in Switzerland using the map 1 below.

Map 1: IKEA stores in Switzerland

e) Describe the location of the IKEA store in Pratteln using map 2 below.

f) Why do you think this location was chosen for the IKEA store?

Ikea Pratteln.jpg
Map 2: IKEA Pratteln


g) Describe the type of goods that COOP sell.
h) How often do people visit COOP?
Coop Basel.PNG

i) Describe the location of Basel Euro Airport using this map. Make sure you mention the names of the Autoroute and Autobahns and other transport connections in your description.

j) Why was this location chosen for an airport? Give examples do support your answer.

k) Compare the sphere of influence of the Euro Airport, a COOP and IKEA?

Exam Style Question:

Explain why people travel further for some shops and services than others. (5 marks)

You should mention the type of goods they available, the frequency that people buy these goods, the cost of the goods or services offered.

Part 2: Settlement Hierarchy


Isolated Place – Just one dwelling surrounded by countryside.

Hamlet – Perhaps a phone and a few houses.

Village – Village shop, church, post office.

Small Town – primary school, supermarket, library, bank, hotel

Large Town – Shopping centre, secondary school, college, cinema, sports centre,

City – Department stores, cathedral, university, football and rugby stadiums, airport.

Conurbation – A city that has expanded into the surrounding towns (urban sprawl) and is now one big settlement under one name.

1) The image above shows a simple model of settlement hierarchy. Click on it and read the information, making notes as go. This is important. Make sure your notes are detailed.

2) Below is a more detailed image showing how the numbers of services is linked to population size. I would like you to use this image as a template to create a detailed settlement hierarchy for Switzerland or a country of your choice.

You must:

Include at least one settlement for each level of the hierarchy.

Find out the most update population data you can for each settlement.

Give examples of the services available in each settlement. Wherever possible you should include both high and low order services.

Settlement Size and Services.jpg

……or maybe we’ll create a board display instead.

You may use the .ppt below as a template on which to create your Hierarchy.

Exam Question:

  • What relationship exists between the population of towns and the number of shops? (3 marks)

  • Describe the hierarchy of settlements in a named country or area which you have studied. (7 marks)

Part 3: Urban Land use in MEDC’s

Different areas of a city are used in different ways. Watch the video below and try to identify how the land use changes as you travel through London.

How do you,”use,” Basel? Think about the places you go to in Basel and why you go there.

Can you find them on the map below?

Is there a pattern?

There have been a number of different models created to help understand how the land in urban areas is used.

The Burgess model is the simplest.

A) Summarise the information above the worksheet below.


B)Go to Google Mapsand use the street view tool to find the locations of the photos you took on your way home.

Swap and share photos with your class mates to get as many locations as possible.

C) For each photo decide which of the land use zones it best represents.

D) Mark the location of each photo using a marker. The colour of the marker will depend on the land use zone you place it in. Use the model below as a key.

Burgess model key.gif

E) Complete the table below using the photo’s and information from the map you’ve created.

F) When you have finished this, compare the Burgess model to the map of Basel you have created and the Basel Land Use Table you completed.

i) Describe the CBD of Basel using named examples of locations, shops and other businesses services.

ii) Give a named example of high density, low cost housing in the Basel area. Describe its location.

iii) Name an area that has high class residential housing in the Basel area.

iv) Describe the difference between the houses in the areas you have named in parts (ii) and (iii). Who is likely to live in each of these areas?

v) Why do you not see any factories in the centre of Basel? Why are many buildings taller than in other areas of Basel?

G) Does transport effect land use? Click on the map below to see a larger map of Basel’s tram network.

Basel tram network.JPG

i) Why would it be an advantage to live close to a tram line?

ii) Do you think tram lines affect the type of land use, which zones from Burgess’ model would you expect to find close to tram lines. Will it change as you go farther away from the CBD? Explain your answer and give examples where possible.

iii) Apart from Tram lines, what other things may affect the land use? How might being next to the river, close to a motorway or near a train station affect the land use? Explain your answer using examples wherever you can.

H) Hoyt’s Sector Model


Hoyt’s model was developed in 1939. It takes into account the impact of transport routes. It also suggests that certain land uses repel each other. It makes sense, would you want to live next to a factory.

Industry develops along major roads or close to ports. High class houses are never close to factories.

i) Can you name an area where there is low class housing next to light industry?

ii) Where do you find industry close to a port? Name one company that have a factory close to the port. Is it also close to the motorway or railway? Why?

Extension 1: Other Models of Urban Land use

Look at the model below. Can you describe and explain the difference between the Hoyt model and the Multi Centre (Nuclei) model proposed by Harris and Ullman. Click on the image to find out more.

Hoyt v Harris and Ullman.jpg

Extension 2 : The Bid Rent Curve.

1) Describe and explain the relationship between Land Price, Land use and Distance from the city using the model below.

Click on the image to find out more.
Bid Rent.PNG

Exam Style Questions:

  1. Explain why land use varies in an urban area. (3 marks)

  2. In what way do shops in the CBD differ from those in residential areas. (5 marks)

  3. Describe the differences between the housing in two areas of Basel (2 marks)

  4. Describe and give reasons for the location of an industrial zone in Basel. ( 3 marks)

  5. Describe what is meant by the Rural Urban fringe and give a named example for a town or city you have studied. ( 2 marks)

  6. Suggest reasons why new industry and housing is being developed around Basel’s rural urban fringe.

  7. For a named town or city you have studied, describe the location and characteristics of two contrasting housing areas. (7 marks)

  8. State one function of a large urban area you have studied. Explain why the urban area has this function. (7 marks)



Part 4: Urban Sprawl

1) Use the map above to describe the growth of Basel.

Urban Sprawl is the spread or growth of an urban area into the rural-urban fringe. We are going to look at the impact that this process has.

2) Describe the location of an area in Basel that has been affected by Rural Urban Fringe. It is likely that you can use the area where you live. From the map above insert a map from 1900 and the present day that shows your chosen settlement.

3) Describe the changes that have taken place in your chosen area between 1900 and today. Name specific places, street names etc.

4) Now create a table to show the impact of Rural Urban Sprawl on your chosen area. The table to should be split into the impact on people and the natural environment.

Conflict on the Rural Urban Fringe.

As Settlements grow, demand for land increases and this can lead to considerbale conflict. Whilst housing developers will want the land to build houses on, industry may want the land for offices or factories. Local people may object to the increase in traffic and pollution.
Conflict Rural-Urban Fringe.docx

Part 5: Urban Redevelopment: Erlenmatt

The area around our school is an excellent example of redevelopment in the area around the CBD. The zone around the CBD has a number of names, Zone of Light Industry, Inner City, Twilight Zone and Zone of Redevelopment.

1) Why do you think so many different names have been given to this zone? What do these names tell us about this zone of the city?

2) Use a map of Basel to describe the location of Erlenmatt. In your description you should mention the proximity of the area to Basel’s CBD, the Novartis Campus and other companies, transport links such as the Bad Bahnof, Autobahn and trams stops etc.

3) Why does the location of Erlenmatt make it a good place for people to live?

The photo below shows the Erlenmatt in 1990. If you click on the photo you can find more information about what Erlenmatt. Use the photo and the information to answer the next questions.

Umschlagbahnhof DB Erlenmatt 1990's.jpg

4) What was the Erlenmatt areas main use until 2003?

5) What sort of housing would you have found around Erlenmatt when it was still an industrial area?

The Gentrification of Erlenmatt:

Erlenmatt Banner.PNG

6) Click on the image above and explore the Erlenmatt project. Write a detailed description of project describing what has been built. Include housing, services and green spaces in your description.

7) The new Erlenmatt development is built on a Brownfield Site. What is meant by the term Brownfield Site.

8) What are the advantages and disadvantages of devloping a Brownfield Site?

9) The Photograph below shows the inside of one of the new Erlenmatt Apartments. Make a note of the following information.

a) the location of the appartment b)the rental price c) the number of rooms d) the size of the apartment in m2

Erlenmatt appartment price.PNG
Erlenmatt appartment.PNGErlenmatt appartment info.PNG

Erlenmatt appartment description.PNG

9) Describe the type of people who would chose to live in this apartment. Explain your answer.

10) The Erlenmatt development is an example of Gentrification. What does this term mean.

11) What benefits will the gentrification of the Erlenmatt area bring to the residents and the city of Basel?

12) Read the articles below. Many people oppose gentrifictaion, using examples from the article, explain the problems associated with gentrification of inner city locations such as Erlenmatt.

Christen wollen Gutes tun und schmeissen ihre Mieter raus

Um günstige Wohnungen zu bauen vertreibt der Vinzenzverein an der Mattenstrasse seine Mieterschaft aus günstigen Wohnungen. Die komplizierte Geschichte eines Eigentümerwechsels.


Exam Style Questions:

1) Explain why inner city areas such as Erlenmatt are being redeveloped? (3 marks)

2) For a named example. Describe the redevelopment that has taken place. (5 marks)

3) Describe and explain the advantages and disadvantages associated with a named inner city redevelopment project. (7 marks)

An Out of Town Shoppping Centre: Stücki, Basel


  • Where is it? Location Map.

  • Was it built on a greenfield or brown field site?

  • What are the advantages of it’s location?

  • Give some examples of the shops in Stücki?

  • What else can you do in Stücki?

  • Why might people go to Stücki, rather than to Basel’s CBD?

  • What impact might Stücki have on the CBD’s of nearby towns and cities?

Exam Question:

For a named example you have studied, explain the growth of an out-of-town shopping area. (7 marks)

Part 4 Problems of Urbanisation

Use the information below to complete the table in the word document below. Give as much detail as possible.

Problems of Urbanisation Summary Table.docx

a) The Decline of the CBD

How can Amazon have an impact on the CBD?
Amazon Go.PNG

How Basel is helping businesses in the CBD

Proinnerstadt Basel.PNG

b) Traffic Congestion

Commute Maps.PNG

10 monster traffic jams from around the world


Solving the Problems of Traffic Congestion in Basel

Park and Ride TNW.PNG

Basel’s Traffic Policy (Verkehrskonzept)

Verkehrskonzept Innenstadt 2015.pdf

Bike Parking at the SBB.PNG

c) Pollution

Why Delhi is losing its clean air war

Air Pollution

Urban pollution ‘raises blood pressure’

City pollution, previously linked to poor respiratory health, has now been linked to raised blood pressure.

paint tin in river.jpg
Pollution of waterways is a big problem in many urban areas. photo from http://adsoftheworld.com

What other forms of pollution could you expect in Urban areas?

Environmental protection in Basel.PNG

d) Crime

Top 10 most dangerous cities in the world

Basel Crime Prevention.PNG

Exam Question:

In all large urban areas attempts have been made to solve the problems faced by the people who live there. These include problems such as:

traffic congestion,

housing shortages,

urban sprawl.

Choose either one of these problems or any other problem faced by people who live in urban areas. For a named urban area, describe the attempts which have been made to solve the problem which you have chosen. [7]

What is the Future of Cities? How can we solve the problems associated with urban areas as they continue to grow? Are cities more sustainable than a rural lifestyle?

Future Cities.PNG

Other useful websites:

The geographyalltheway.com section on settlement.